Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method

Erik Hollnagel

Ph.D., Professor, Professor Emeritus


Hollnagel, E. (1998) Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM). Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.

No man is an island entire of itself;

John Donne (c. 1572-1631)


A Fable. Once upon a time a bunch of well-meaning scientists started to get worried about the many errors that other people made. This was not just the slip of the tongue and the housewife everyday errors, or not even the many people that killed each other on the roads. Such things had become commonplace and nobody paid much attention to them. In particular, the newspapers rarely reported them on the front page. The scientists were rather concerned about errors in complex industrial systems where a single person could cause irreparable harm to many others. These were the kind of events that would grab the headlines and dominate the news - at least for a day or two.

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