1980s

Copyright © Erik Hollnagel 2020

All Rights Reserved.


The chief motive of all human actions is the desire to avoid anxiety.

Ibn Hazm (994-1064)

1980 - 1989

Journal papers 

Hollnagel, E. (1980). Is information science an anomalous state of knowledge? Journal of Information Science, 2, 183-187.

Hollnagel, E. & Lind, M. (1982). Self-reference as a problem in the control of complex systems. Psyke & Logos, 2, 323-332.

Hollnagel, E. (1983). What we do not know about man-machine systems (N-40-81). International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, 135-143.

Hollnagel, E. (1983). Review of Douglas R. Hofstadter’s Gödel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. Journal of Pragmatics, 7, 89-92.

Hollnagel, E. & Woods, D. D. (1983). Cognitive systems engineering: New wine in new bottles. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18, 583-600.

Hollnagel, E. (1984). Experimental design of man-machine studies. Social Science Information Studies, 4(2&3), 149-166.

Hollnagel, E. (1984). Inductive and deductive approaches to modelling of human decision making. Psyke & Logos, 5(2), 288-301.

Woods, D. D. & Hollnagel, E. (1987). Mapping cognitive demands in complex problem solving worlds. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 26(2), 257-275. (Also in B. R. Gaines & J. H. Boose (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition for knowledge-based systems. London: Academic Press, 1988.)

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Information and reasoning in intelligent decision support systems. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27(5/6), 665-678. (Also in G. Mancini, D. D. Woods & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Cognitive engineering in dynamic environments. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.)

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Introduction. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27(5/6), 459-461. (Also in G. Mancini, D. D. Woods & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Cognitive engineering in dynamic environments. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.)

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Commentary: Issues in knowledge-based decision support. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 27(5/6), 743-751. (Also in: In G. Mancini, D. D. Woods & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Cognitive engineering in dynamic environments. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988.)

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Plan recognition in modelling of users. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 22, 129-136. (Also in G. E. Apostolakis, P. Kafka & G. Mancini (Eds.), Accident sequence modelling: Human actions, system response, intelligent decision support. London: Elsevier Applied Science.)

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Tal og risikovurdering. TIT temanummer om risikovurdering.

Hollnagel, E. (1988). A review of Charles Perrow’s ‘Normal accidents: Living with high-risk technologies.’ SPUDM Bulletin, I, 10-13.


Books and book chapters

Hollnagel, E. (1983). Some psychological requirements to a theory of information science. In Debons, A., Larson, A. G. (Eds.), Information science in action: System design I (p. 172-185). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Hollnagel, E. (1984). Ergonomi. In: E. Petersen & K. E. Sabroe (Eds.) Arbejdspsykologi. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1984.

Hollnagel, E., Mancini, G. & Woods, D. D. (Eds.) (1986). Intelligent decision support in process environments. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E. (1986). Cognitive system performance analysis. In: Hollnagel, E., Mancini, G. & Woods, D. D. (Eds.), Intelligent decision support in process environments. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Failure analysis of information systems: Reflections on the use of expert systems in information systems. In J. A Wise & A. Debons (Eds.), Information systems: Failure analysis. New York: Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Mental models and model mentality. In L. P. Goodstein, H. B. Andersen & S. E. Olsen (Eds.), Mental models, tasks and errors. A collection of essays to celebrate Jens Rasmussen’s 60th birthday. Taylor & Francis.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). M-M-S unterschiedlicher Komplexität. In C. G. Hoyos & B. Zimolong (Eds.), Ingenieurpsychologie. Göttingen, F. R. Germany: Verlag für Psychologie, 1987.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). DEMON. A Model for the Monitoring of Decision Making. In J. Rasmussen & P. Zunde (Eds.), Empirical foundations on information and software science III. New York: Plenum Press.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Cognitive models and cognitive tasks in man-machine systems. In I. Wormell (Ed.), Knowledge engineering: Expert systems and information retrieval. London: Taylor Graham.

Mancini, G., Woods, D. D. & Hollnagel, E. (Eds.) (1988). Cognitive engineering in dynamic environments. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Knowledge-based dialogue in intelligent decision support systems. In N. Majumdar, D. Majumdar & J. I Sackett (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Other Innovative Computer Applications in the Nuclear Industry. New York: Plenum Press.

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Evaluation of expert systems. In G. Guida & C. Tasso (Eds.), Topics in expert system design. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Woods, D. D. & Hollnagel, E. (1988). Mapping cognitive demands in complex problem solving worlds. In B. R. Gaines & J. H. Boose (Eds.), Knowledge acquisition for knowledge-based systems. London: Academic Press.

Hollnagel E. (Ed.), (1989). The reliability of expert systems. Chichester: Ellis Horwood, Ltd.

Conference presentations 

Hollnagel, E. (1982). An outline of a series of diversified process simulation (DIPOS) experiments (N-9-82, NKA/LIT-3(82)116). Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, 26th Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA.

Hollnagel, E. (1982). Reflections on problems raised in letter of invitation. In L. S. Abbott (Ed.), Proceedings of workshop on cognitive modelling of nuclear plant control room operators, Dedham, Massachusetts, August 15-18, (NUREG/CR-3114, ORNL/TM-8614).

Hollnagel, E. (1982). Analysis of simulator training. International Conference on Training for Nuclear Power Plant Operation, Bristol, England, 20-21 May.

Woods, D. D. & Hollnagel, E. (1982). A technique to analyse human performance in training simulators. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, 26th Annual Meeting, Seattle, 1982.

Pugh, L. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1983). Validation of operator support systems. Paper presented at the Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting on Computerised Man-Machine Communication, Loen, Norway, May 23-28.

Büttner, W. E., Hollnagel, E., Reichardt, G. & Roggenbauer, H. (1983). Test of the STAR-system within the framework of the project ‘Case studies.’ Paper presented at the Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting on Computerised Man-Machine Communication, Loen, Norway, May 23-28.

Hollnagel, E. (1983). Man-machine symbiosis and cognitive systems. Paper presented at the NKA/LIT Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in the Control of Complex Systems, Risø, Denmark, April 7-8.

Hollnagel, E., Rohde, K., Rintilla, E. & Wahlstrøm, B. (1983). The experimental validation of the critical function monitoring system. Paper presented at the Third European Annual Conference on Human Decision and Manual Control, Risø, Denmark, May 31 - June 1.

Hollnagel, E. (1983). Cognitive systems engineering in operator modelling (HWR-112). Proceedings of the IASTED Symposium on Applied Control & Identification, Vol. I., Copenhagen, Denmark, June 28 - July 1.

Hollnagel, E. (1983). Position paper on human error. Responses to Queries from the Program Committee. NATO Conference on Human Error, Bellagio, Italy, September 5-9.

Hollnagel, E. (1984). A conceptual framework for the description and analysis of man-machine system interaction (HWR-116). Proceedings of the Symposium on Ergonomics Problems in Process Operation, University of Aston, Birmingham, 11-13 July.

Meijer, C. H., Callaghan, V. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1984). Improved man-machine system design for nuclear power plants. Paper presented at the ANS/ASME Conference on Design, Construction & Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Portland, Oregon, August 5-8.

Hollnagel, E. (1985). Simulation: A tool for design evaluation. Paper presented at the NFMS Seminar on The Human Factor in the Design Process, Oslo, Norway, April 16th.

Hollnagel, E. (1985). Man-machine verification in the NORS/HALO experiment. Proceedings of the IEEE Third Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants, Monterey, CA, June 23-27.

Hollnagel, E. (1985). Cognitive systems engineering as a design tool. Paper presented at the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Computer Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Operation and Control, Pasco, WA, September 8-12.

Hollnagel, E. (1985). Evaluation of Computerised operator support systems in nuclear power plants. Paper presented at the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Computer Applications for Nuclear Power Plant Operation and Control, Pasco, WA, September 8-12.

Hollnagel, E. (1985). A Model for the Monitoring of Decision Making. Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Empirical Foundations of Information and Software Sciences, Risø, Denmark, October 21-25.

Hollnagel, E. (1986). Failure analysis of information systems: Reflections on the use of expert systems in information systems. Paper presented at the NATO ARW on Failure Analysis of Information Systems, Bad Windsheim, West Germany, 18-22 August.

Hollnagel, E. (1986). Economy, accessibility and safety of complex man-machine systems. In M. Stockman & B. Wahlström (Eds.) VTT Symposium 67 - Människan i komplexa industriella processer. (Proceedings of the Nordic Man-Machine Conference, Mariehamn, Aaland, April 15-17.) Esbo, Finland: Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Hollnagel, E. & Erlandsen, J. (1986). The next step in expert systems. Paper presented at Norddata 86, Stockholm, Sweden, June 16-19.

Hollnagel, E. (1986). Information and reasoning in intelligent decision support systems. Paper presented at the Workshop on Intelligent Decision Support Systems, Ispra (Varese), Italy, 11-14 November.

Hollnagel, E. (1986). Cognitive models and cognitive tasks in man-machine systems. Paper presented at the Nordinfo Seminar on Knowledge Engineering, Copenhagen, Denmark, December 10-12.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). The computer analogy of mind. Invited paper for the Symposium on Computers, Cognition and Epistemology, Sandbjerg Castle, Denmark, April 24th-26th.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Plan recognition in modelling of users. Invited paper for the International Post-SMiRT Seminar on Accident Sequence Modelling, München, F. R. Germany, August 24-25, 1987.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Knowledge-based dialogue in intelligent decision support systems. Invited paper for the ANS Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Other Innovative Computer Applications in the Nuclear Industry, Snowbird, Utah, August 31 - September 2.

Hollnagel, E. Weir, G. & Sundström, G. (1987). User modelling in the Gradient project. Paper presented at the ESPRIT Technical Week, September 28-30, Brussels, Belgium. Also presented at IJCAI-87, August, Milano, Italy.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Applications of knowledge-based systems in NPP control rooms. Invited paper for the IBC Conference on Human Reliability in Nuclear Power, London (England), October 22-23.

Hollnagel, E. (1987). Competence, prediction, and planning. Paper presented at the First European Meeting on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, Marcoussis (France), October 19-20.

Hollnagel, E. & Weir, G. (1988). Principles for dialogue design in man-machine systems. 3rd IFAC Conference on Man-Machine Systems, 14-16 June 1988, Oulo, Finland. London: Pergamon Books Ltd.

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Responsibility issues in intelligent decision support systems. ICL and Ergonomics Society Conference on ‘Human and Organisational Issues of Expert Systems,’ Stratford-upon-avon, 4th-6th May 1988.

Hollnagel, E. (1988). The phenotype of erroneous actions: Implications for HCI design. Workshop on HCI and System Complexity, Glasgow, October 2-4.

Hollnagel, E. (1988). Man-machine interaction and decision support systems: User modelling and dialogue specification. IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on ‘User Requirements for Decision Support Systems,’ Vienna, November 28 - December 1, 1988.

Weir, G. & Hollnagel, E. (1989). Procedural support in the GRADIENT system. ESPRIT Conference 1989.

Hollnagel, E. (1989). Nordic man-machine conference 1989: A summary of the main issues. In B. Wahlström & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Människan i komplexa system - VTT Symposium 106. Helsinki: Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Wahlström, B. & Hollnagel, E. (Eds.) (1989). Människan i komplexa system - VTT Symposium 106. Helsinki: Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Hollnagel, E. (1989). Summary of the main issues. In M. Lind & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Manual Control.

Hollnagel, E. (1989). The design of fault tolerant systems: Prevention is better than cure. Proceedings of Second European Meeting on Cognitive Approaches to Process Control, Siena, Italy, October 24-27.

Hollnagel, E. (1989). Human Reliability In Knowledge-Intensive Tasks. Invited paper for the IBC Conference on Human Reliability in Nuclear Power, London (England), October 19-20.

Hollnagel, E. (1989). Performance improvement through cognitive task analysis. Paper presented at the ESA-ESTEC Workshop on ‘Human Factors Engineering: A Task Oriented Approach,’ Noordwijk, Holland, November 21-23.

Miscellanea (Reports, etc.) 

Hollnagel, E. (1980). The role of conceptual structure in analysing operator behaviour (Risø-M-2217). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1980). Report from the NKA/KRU pilot experiment: An evaluation of the use of a qualitative methodology in the investigation of operator performance in complex environments (N-18-80, NKA/KRU-P2(80)28). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1980). Report from the second NKA/KRU experiment: The performance of non-professionals in controlling a complex process (N-28-80, NKA/KRU-P2(80)30). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1980). Human malfunctions and decision making: A comparison of two types of description (N-31-80). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1980). Suggestions for the training of the in-house group of persons at the Halden IFE (N-35-80, NKA/KRU-P2(80)32). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1980). On the validity of simulator studies: Problems and preliminary precepts (N-39-80, NKA/KRU-P2(80)33). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1980). Report from the third NKA/KRU experiment: Tape transcripts and diagrams (N-40-80, NKA/KRU-P2(80)34). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Report from the third NKA/KRU experiment: The performance of control engineers in the surveillance of a complex process (N-41-81, NKA/KRU-P2(81)36). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Comments on the use of nuclear plant simulators: A myopic view (N-16-81, NKA/KRU-P2(81)39). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Ergonomi (N-10-81). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. & Rasmussen, J. (1981). Simulator training analysis. A proposal for combined trainee debriefing and performance data collection in training simulators (Risø-M-2301, N-19-81, NKA/KRU-P2(81)38). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Experimental evaluation and validation (N-20-81, NKA/KRU-P2(81)40). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E., Pedersen, O. M., & Rasmussen, J. (1981). Notes on human performance analysis (Risø-M-2285). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Verification and validation in the experimental evaluation of new designs for man-machine systems (Risø-M-2300). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Guidelines for observations of operator decision making (N-27-81, NKA/LIT-3(81)101). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Deductive and inductive models of decision making as the background for observation and analysis of operator decision making (N-28-81, NKA/LIT-3(81)102). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). The methodology of man-machine systems: Problems of verification and validation (Risø-M-2313). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department, October.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Simulator training analysis: Directions for using the decision analysis scheme (N-39-81, NKA/LIT-3(81)107). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). On the use of generic baseline descriptions (N-32-81, NKA/LIT-3(81)103). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1981). Report from the fourth NKA/KRU experiment: Tape transcripts and diagrams (N-46-81, NKA/KRU-P2(81)41). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1982). Training simulator analysis method: Status report from the pilot study (N-1-82, NKA/LIT-3(82)110). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1982). Six basic questions for man-machine systems evaluation (N-5-82, NKA/LIT-3(82)113). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1982). Report from the IEOP pilot study of training simulator analysis methods (N-7-82, NKA/LIT-3.2(82)114). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1982). Evaluation of man-machine systems: Methodological aspects of reliability, verification and validation (N-06-82). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. & Marshall, E. (1982). The methodology of the CFMS project (HWR-77). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E. & Woods, D. D. (1983). Cognitive systems engineering: New wine in new bottles (Risø-M-2330). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Electronics Department.

Hollnagel, E. (1983). Description of data types in the validation of the critical function monitoring system (HWR-61). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Yoshimura, S., Hollnagel, E. & Prætorius, N. (1983). Man-machine interface design using multilevel flow modelling (HWR-96). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E., Hunt, G. & Marshall, E. (1983). The experimental validation of the critical function monitoring system. Preliminary results of analysis (HWR-111). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hunt, G. L., Hollnagel, E. & Marshall, E. (1983). Data management in large-scale simulator experiments (HPR-302). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Marshall, E., Hollnagel, E. & Tuominen, L. (1983). The experimental validation of the critical function monitoring system. The training programme (HPR-303). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E., Hunt, G., Prætorius, N. & Yoshimura, S. (1984). Report from the pilot experiment on multilevel flow modelling displays using the GNP-simulator (HWR-114). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E. & Øwre, F. (1984). The NORS/HALO system: Background and methodology for experiment I (HWR-90). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E., Hunt, G. L. & Marshall, E. C. (1984). The experimental validation of the critical function monitoring system. Executive summary (HPR-312). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E. (1984). Outline of a model for the man-machine process control system (HWR-129). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project. (Written under sub-contract for INEL, EG&G Idaho.)

Hollnagel, E. & Leikkonen, I. (1985). Evaluation of SPDS functions in selected disturbances. Halden, Norway: Institute for Energy Technology. (Written under subcontract for BMI-Vorhaben SR 272/3, A.1.4 to GRS, München.)

Baker, S., Hollnagel, E. Øwre, F. (1985). An experimental comparison of three computer-based alarm systems: Design, procedure and execution (HWR-134). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Hollnagel, E. (1985). A survey of man-machine system evaluation methods (HWR-148). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project.

Baker, S, Gertman, D., Hollnagel, E., Holmstrøm, C., Marshall, E. & Øwre, F. (1985). An experimental comparison of three computer-based alarm systems: Results and conclusions (HWR-142). Halden, Norway: OECD Halden Reactor Project

Cain, D., Embrey, D & Hollnagel, E. (1986). Computer based aids for operator support in nuclear power plants. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency, internal document (Doc 2338d/0060d), March.

Hollnagel, E. (1989). Action monitoring and plan recognition. The response evaluation system (RESQ). Birkerød, Denmark: Axion A/S.