1990s

Copyright © Erik Hollnagel 2020

All Rights Reserved.


The chief motive of all human actions is the desire to avoid anxiety.

Ibn Hazm (994-1064)

1990 - 1999

Journal papers 

Hollnagel, E. (1991). The pragmatic and the academic view on expert systems. Expert Systems With Applications, 3, 179-185.

Hollnagel E. (1991). Cognitive ergonomics and the reliability of cognition. Le Travail humain, 54(4), 305-321.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). The reliability of man-machine interaction. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 38, 1992, 81-89.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). The design of fault tolerant systems: Prevention is better than cure. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 36, 231-237.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). The phenotype of erroneous actions. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39, 1-32.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). Requirements for dynamic modelling of man-machine interaction. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 144, 375-384.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). ViVa - A method for verification, improvement and validation of KBS. Future Generation Computer Systems, 9, 371-378.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). Models of cognition: Procedural prototypes and contextual control. Le Travail humain, 56(1), 27-51.

Hollnagel, E. (1994). Evaluation of KBS: Trick or treat? Communication and Cognition - Artificial Intelligence, 11(4), 361-381.

Hollnagel, E., Cacciabue, P. C. & Bagnara, S. (1994). Workshop report: The limits of automation in air traffic control and aviation. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 40, 561-566.

Hollnagel, E. (1996). Reliability analysis and operator modelling. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 52, 327-337.

Niwa, Y., Hollnagel, E. & Green, M. (1996). Guidelines For Computerised Presentation Of Emergency Operating Procedures. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 167, 113-127.

Marsden, P. & Hollnagel, E. (1996). Human interaction with technology: The accidental user. Acta Psychologica, 91, 345-358.

Hollnagel, E. (1997). Reply to ‘A practitioners view on the state of HRA methodology.’ Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 55, 261-262.

Hollnagel, E. (1997). Cognitive ergonomics: It’s all in the mind. Ergonomics, 40(19), 1170-1182.

Kontogiannis, T. & Hollnagel, E. (1998). Application of cognitive ergonomics to interface design of advanced technologies. International Journal of Ergonomics, 2(3), 243-268.

Niwa, Y., Green, M. & Hollnagel, E. (1998). The contribution of human factors to the development of computerised emergency operating procedures. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 2(4), 321-330,

Hollnagel, E. (1998). Comments on ‘Conception of the cognitive engineering design problem’ by John Dowell and John Long. Ergonomics, 41(2), 160-162.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Modelling the controller of a process. Trans Inst MC, 21(4/5), 163-170.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Time and space in process control. Ergonomics, 42(11), 1399-1403.

Hollnagel, E., Kaarstad, M. & Lee, H.-C. (1999). Error mode prediction. Ergonomics, 42(11), 1457-1471.

Hollnagel, E. & Cacciabue, P. C. (1999). Cognition, technology & work: An introduction. Cognition, Technology & Work, 1(1), 1-6.

Bye, A., Hollnagel, E. & Brendeford, T. S. (1999). Human-machine function allocation: A functional modelling approach. Reliability Engineering and Systems Safety, 64(2), 291-300.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Control Versus Dependence: Striking the Balance in Function Allocation. Gateway, IX(4), 12-13. (Human-Technology Integration Colloquium Series.)


Books and book chapters

Hollnagel, E. (1991). The phenotype of erroneous actions: Implications for HCI design. In G. Weir & J. Alty (Eds.), Human-computer Interaction and complex systems. London: Academic Press.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). What is a man that he can be expressed by a number? In G. Apostolakis (Ed.), Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management. New York: Elsevier.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). Den menneskelige faktor. Kapitel i ATVs undervisningsmateriale om ‘Risiko og risikoforståelse.’

Hollnagel, E. (1991). The influence of artificial intelligence on human-computer interaction: Much ado about nothing? In J. Rasmussen, H. B. Andersen & N. O. Bernsen (Eds.), Human-computer interaction. London: Erlbaum.

Cacciabue, P. C., Cojazzi, G., Hollnagel, E. & Mancini, S. (1992). Analysis and modelling of pilot-airplane interaction by an integrated simulation approach. In H. G. Stassen (Ed.), Analysis, design and evaluation of man-machine systems. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). Simplification of complexity: The use of simulation to analyse the reliability of cognition. In T. Aldemir, Siu, N. O., Mosleh, A., Cacciabue, P. C. & Göktepe, G. (Eds.), Reliability and Safety Assessment of Dynamic Process Systems. Heildeberg, Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). The design of reliable HCI: The hunt for hidden assumptions. In J. L. Alty, D. Diaper & S. Guest (Eds.), People and computers VIII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). Human reliability analysis: Context and control. London: Academic Press.

Hollnagel, E. (1994). The reliability of interactive systems: Simulation based assessment. In D. Hopkins, P. Stager & J. Wise (Eds)., Verification and validation of complex systems: Human factors issues. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Computer supported risk management: Between Scylla and Charybdis. In G. E. G. Beroggi & W. A. Wallace (Eds.), Computer supported risk management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Hoc, J.-M., Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (Eds.) (1995). Expertise and technology: Cognition and human-computer cooperation. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollnagel, E., Hoc, J.-M. & Cacciabue, P. C. (1995). Expertise and technology: ‘I have a feeling we are not in Kansas any more.’ In J.-M. Hoc, P. C. Cacciabue & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Expertise and technology: Cognition and human-computer cooperation (p 279-286). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollnagel, E., Hoc, J.-M. & Cacciabue, P. C. (1995). Work With Technology: Some Fundamental Issues. In J.-M. Hoc, P. C. Cacciabue & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Expertise and technology: Cognition and human-computer cooperation (p. 1-15). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollnagel, E. (1996). 認知 システム工学 (Japanese translation of ‘Human reliability analysis: Context and control.’) Tokyo, Japan: Kaibundo Publishing Company,

Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1995). Simulation of cognition: Applications. In J.-M. Hoc, P. C. Cacciabue & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Expertise and technology: Cognition and human-computer cooperation (p. 55-74). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Hollnagel, E. (1997). Cognitive ergonomics and the reliability of man-machine interaction. In Brune, D., Gerhardsson, G., Crockford, G. W. & D’Auria, D. (Eds.), The workplace. Volume 1: Fundamentals of health, safety and welfare. Oslo: Scandinavian Science Publisher AS.

Hollnagel, E. (1998). Context, cognition, and control. In Y. Waern (Ed.). Co-operation in process management - Cognition and information technology. London: Taylor & Francis.

Hollnagel, E. (1998). Cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM). Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Dekker, S. W. A. & Hollnagel, E. (Eds.) (1999). Coping with computers in the cockpit. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). From function allocation to function congruence. In: Dekker, S. & Hollnagel, E. (Eds.), Coping with computers in the cockpit. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK.

Dekker, S. W. A. & Hollnagel, E. (1999). Computers in the cockpit: Practical problems cloaked as progress. In: Dekker, S. & Hollnagel, E. (Eds.), Coping with computers in the cockpit. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK.

Tsuchiya, K., Hayashi, T., Mori, H. & Hollnagel, E. (1999). Estimation of plant operator’s cognitive modes based on the cognition model. In: Büllinger, H.-J. & Ziegler, J. (Eds.), Human-computer interaction: Communication, cooperation, and application design, (p. 1306-1310).

Hollnagel, E. & Niwa, Y. (1999). The collaboration between operators and procedures: A cognitive systems engineering approach to performance improvement. In: Büllinger, H.-J. & Ziegler, J. (Eds.), Human-computer interaction: Communication, cooperation, and application design, (p. 1211-1215).

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Keep cool: The value of affective computer interfaces in a rational world. In: Büllinger, H.-J. & Ziegler, J. (Eds.), Human-computer interaction: Communication, cooperation, and application design, (p. 676-680).

Conference presentations 

Hollnagel, E. (1990). The design of integrated man-machine systems and the amplification of intelligence. Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications, March 12-16, Mito City, Ibaraki, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1990). Supercomputing in nuclear applications: A complex solution to a complex problem. Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications, March 12-16, Mito City, Ibaraki, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1990). The application of AI in computational fluid dynamics. Invited presentation for the 2nd ALFA CHF Symposium, March 19-20, Press Center Hall, Tokyo.

Hollnagel, E. (1990). Om opgave og informationsanalyse. Invited presentation for the Danish Automation Society meeting on Graphics in Process Control, Lyngby, Denmark, April 4th, 1990.

Hollnagel, E. (1990). Interface design and concept crystalisation. Invited lecture for the BCS SGHCI Symposium on ‘Interface Issues In Interactive Learning,’ Edinburgh, April 9th, 1990.

Hollnagel, E. (1990). The design of error tolerant interfaces. First International Symposium on Ground Data Systems For Spacecraft Control, Darmstadt, FRG, June 26-29. (ESA Special Publication SP-308.)

Weir, G. R. S. & Hollnagel, E. (1990). Principles of procedural support in man-machine systems. In C. Cacciabue & G. Mancini (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Manual Control.

Hollnagel, E., Rosness, R. & Taylor, R. J. (1990). Human reliability and the reliability of cognition. Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on ‘Human Machine Interaction And Artificial Intelligence In Aeronautics And Space,’ Toulouse-Blagnac, 26-28 September, 1990.

Hollnagel, E. (1990). Hvordan opfattes en alarm? Fra simple signaler til fortolkede symboler. Invited presentation for the Danish Automation Society meeting on Alarm Processing, Lyngby, Denmark, December 5th, 1990.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). Systematik i udviklingen af interaktive systemer. Invited presentation for the Danish Automation Society meeting on Graphics In Process Control, Taastrup, Denmark, April 29-30, 1991.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). The reliability of knowledge-based systems. ESA/ESTEC Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-Based Systems For Space, May 22-24, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). The design of reliable interactive systems. Invited presentation at SITEF, Toulouse, France, October 1991.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). The reliability of man-machine interaction. Invited presentation for the SMiRT 11th Post-Conference Seminar on Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methodology, August 26-27, Kyoto, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. & Cacciabue, C. (1991). Modeling cognition and erroneous actions in system simulation contexts. Paper presented at 3rd European Meeting on ‘Cognitive Science Approaches To Process Control,’ Cardiff, 2nd-6th September.

Hollnagel, E. (1991). Obstacles for on-line operation of expert systems. Invited panel presentation for World Congress on Expert Systems, December 16-19, Orlando, Florida.

Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1992). The system response generator as an integrated simulation approach for human-machine interaction studies. Paper presented at CINDYNIX 92, European Symposium on Hazard Science.

Hollnagel, E., Cacciabue, P. C. & Rouhet, J.-C. (1992). The use of integrated system simulation for risk and reliability assessment. Paper presented at the 7th International Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industry, Taormina, Italy, 4th-8th May, 1992.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). Models Of Cognition: Procedural Prototypes And Contextual Control. Invited paper for CADES Workshop, Bretigny, April.

Hollnagel, E. & Cacciabue, P. C. (1992). Reliability assessment of interactive systems with the system response analyser. European Safety and Reliability Conference ‘92, Copenhagen, 10-12 June, 1992.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). PSA through dynamic modelling of man-machine interaction. Invited presentation at Design and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (ANP ‘92), Tokyo, Japan, October 25-29, 1992.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). Requirements for dynamic modelling of man-machine interaction. Post-ANS Seminar, November 4-5 1992, Kyoto, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). The reliability of interactive systems: Simulation based assessment. Invited position paper for the NATO ASI on Verification and Validation of the Human-Machine Interface, July 6-17, 1992, Vimeiro, Portugal.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). Coping, coupling and control: The modelling of muddling through. Invited paper for 2nd Interdisciplinary Workshop on Mental Models, March 23-25, 1992, Robinson College, Cambridge, UK.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). The formalization of knowledge-based systems validation and verification: Promises and pitfalls. In F. Vogt (Ed.), Information Processing 92 - Volume III: Intelligent systems and personal computers. Proceedings of the 12th World Computer Congress, Madrid, Spain, 7-11 September.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). The art of efficient man-machine interaction: Improving the coupling between man and machine. Invited paper for CADES workshop, St. Prix, France, August 1992. (Also in: J.-M. Hoc, P. C. Cacciabue & E. Hollnagel (Eds.), Expertise and technology: Cognition & human-computer cooperation. Lawrence Erlbaum.)

Hollnagel, E. (1992). Simplification of complexity: The use of simulation to analyse the reliability of cognition. NATO ARW on reliability and safety assessment of dynamic process systems, Kusadasi, Turkey, August 24-28.

Hollnagel, E. (1992). The intelligent use of intelligent systems. In O. Kaynak (Ed.), Proceedings of NATO ARW on ‘Intelligent Systems: Safety, Reliability and Maintainability Issues,’ Kusadasi, Turkey, August 24-27, 1992.

Kjær-Hansen, J., Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1992). A system response generator for human-machine interaction analysis. 11th European Annual Conference on Human decision Making and Manual Control, Valenciennes, France, 17-19 November, 1992

Mancini, S., Rouhet, J. C., Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1992). SRG: A risk analysis software tool for man-machine integrated simulations. XIII International GfS Summer Symposium, Gelsenkirchen, Germany, 15-17 June.

Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1993). Human models in reliability and safety analysis of interactive systems. Paper presented at PSA93, Clearwater Beach, Florida, 26-29 January, 1993.

Hollnagel, E., Cacciabue, P. C. & Mancini, S. (1993). The System response generator: An interactive analytical tool to evaluate simplicity and effectiveness of procedures. 4th Conference on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, August, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Hollnagel, E., Hougaard, P., Rosness, R., Paulsen, T., Øgaard, O. & Farkin, B. (1993). A specific method for the design of man-machine interaction. 4th International Conference on HMI & AI in Aerospace, Toulouse, September 28-30.

Hollnagel, E. & Cacciabue, P. C. (1993). Investigating the consequences of incorrect procedures execution in aerospace: The System Response Generator. 4th International Conference on HMI & AI in Aerospace, Toulouse, September 28-30.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). Modelling of cognition for behaviour in emergency situations. International Conference on Human Factors in Nuclear Safety, 22-23 April 1993, The Selfridge Hotel, London.

Hollnagel, E. & Embrey, D. (1993). Human reliability analysis in safety assessment: Addressing cognitive and action errors. IBC Conference on PSA/PRA for the nuclear industry, November 1-2, London.

Kjær-Hansen, J., Hougaard, P. & Hollnagel, E. (1993). A simple model of cognition. 4th Conference on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control, August, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Cacciabue, P. C., Pedrali, M. & Hollnagel, E. (1993). Taxonomy and models for human factors analysis of interactive systems: An application to flight safety (ISEI/IE 2437 / 93). Paper presented at the 2nd ICAO Flight Safety and Human Factors Symposium, Washington D. C., April 12-15.

Ashlund, S., Mullet, K., Henderson, A., Hollnagel, E. & White, T. (1993). Human factors in computing systems. Proceedings of Interchi ‘93. New York, USA: ACM SIGCHI.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). The modelling of loss of control. International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: Systems Engineering in the Service of Humans (p. 44-49). Le Touquet, France,17-20 October.

Hollnagel, E., Hougaard, P., Cacciabue, P. C., Kjaer-Hansen, J., Aw, A. & Mancini, S. G. (1993). System response generator. Joint Seminar on Operational Safety, Lyon, October 14-15, France.

Hougaard, P. C., Hollnagel, E., Kjaer-Hansen, J. & Mancini, S. G. (1993). Fault identification in dynamic man-machine interaction. International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: Systems Engineering in the Service of Humans (p. 387-391). 17-20 October.

Hollnagel, E. & Cacciabue, P. C. (1994). Reliability of cognition: Context and data for a second generation HRA. 2nd International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment Methods, San Diego, CA, March 21-25, 1994.

Hollnagel, E. (1994). Control room design and human reliability. Invited paper for 1st International Conference on Tunnel Control and Communication, Basel, November 28-30, 1994.

Green, M., Hollnagel, E. & Niwa, Y. (1994). Guidelines for the presentation of emergency operating procedures using advanced information technology (IAEA-12-SP-384.37). Proceedings of the IAEA Specialists Meeting on Advanced Information Methods and Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms, Halden, Norway, September 13-15, 1994.

Hollnagel E. (1994). Principles of cognitive reliability analysis. International Workshop on Human Reliability Models: Theoretical and Practical Challenges, Stockholm, August 22-24, 1994.

Niwa, Y. & Hollnagel, E. (1995). The design of computerised procedure presentation for nuclear power plants. Paper presented at HCI International ‘95, July 9-14, Yokohama, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Cognitive functions and automation: Principles of human-centred automation. Paper presented at HCI International ‘95, July 9-14, Yokohama, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Structural and functional approaches to modelling of interaction in HCI. Invited panel presentation at HCI International ‘95, July 9-14, Yokohama, Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Automation, coping, and control. In S. Kondo (Ed.), Post HCI ‘95 Seminar on Human-Machine Interface in Process Control - Interface for co-understanding and cooperation (Hieizan. Japan, July 17-18). Atomic Energy Society of Japan.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Latent failure conditions and safety barrier integrity. Invited presentation at Joint OECD/NEA-IAEA Symposium on Human Factors and Organisation in NPP Maintenance Outages: Impact on Safety. Stockholm, Sweden, 19-22 June, 1995.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Interface Evaluation And Cognitive Ergonomics. Proceedings of CSAPC 95, August 30 - September 1, 1995, Helsinki, Finland.

Hollnagel, E. (1996). Decision support and task nets. In S. Robertson (Ed.) Contemporary Ergonomics 1996 (Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society, April 10-12, Leicester). London: Taylor & Francis.

Hollnagel, E. (1996). Performance reliability and control. In: C. Cacciabue & I. Papazoglou (Eds.), Probabilistic safety assessment and management ’96. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E. & Wreathall, J. (1996). HRA at the turning point? In: C. Cacciabue & I. Papazoglou (Eds.), Probabilistic safety assessment and management ’96. Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Hollnagel, E., Drøivoldsmo, A. & Kirwan, B. (1996). Practical insights from studies of operator diagnosis. Proceedings of 8th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE-8), September 9-13, Granada, Spain.

Hollnagel, E. (1996). On the road to ‘human error.’ In: Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA ’96), September 29 - October 3, Park City, Utah. La Grange Park, Illinois: American Nuclear Society.

Andersson, K., Andersson, S-O., Edland, A., Hollnagel, E., Josefsson, R. & Ljunquist, B. (1996). Integrated sequence analysis - Semidynamic analysis of an SGTR sequence. In: Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA ’96), September 29 - October 3, Park City, Utah. La Grange Park, Illinois: American Nuclear Society.

Hollnagel, E. & Niwa, Y. (1996). A cognitive systems engineering approach to computerised procedure presentation. In: Proceedings of Cognitive Systems Engineering in Process Control (CSEPC 96), November 12-15, Kyoto, Japan.

Yoshida, H., Takeda, M., Hayashi, Y. & Hollnagel, E. (1997). Cognitive control behavior of the operator in the emergency. In P. Seppälä, T. Luopajärvi, C.-H. Nygård & M. Mattila (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, June 29- July 4, 1997, Tampere, Finland. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

Hollnagel, E. (1997). Cognitive ergonomics or the mind at work. In P. Seppälä, T. Luopajärvi, C.-H. Nygård & M. Mattila (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, June 29- July 4, 1997, Tampere, Finland. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

Hollnagel, E., Kaarstad , M. & Lee, H.-C. (1997). Error mode prediction. In S. Bagnara, E. Hollnagel, M. Mariani & L. Norros (Eds.), Time and space in process control. Proceedings of Sixth European Conference on Cognitive Science Approaches to Process Control. Rome: Istituto di psicologie. / CNR.

Hollnagel, E. (1997). Control versus dependence: Striking the balance in function allocation. In G. Salvendy, M. J. Smith & R. J. Koubek (Eds.), Design of computing systems: Social and ergonomic considerations, p. 243-246 (Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, San Francisco, CA, August 24-29, 1997). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hollnagel, E. (1997). Designing for complexity. In G. Salvendy, M. J. Smith & R. J. Koubek (Eds.), Design of computing systems: Social and ergonomic considerations, p. 217-220 (Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, San Francisco, CA, August 24-29, 1997). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hollnagel, E. & Hol, J. Ø. (1997). Twenty-five years of operator-process communication: Lessons learned and problems solved? In G. Salvendy, M. J. Smith & R. J. Koubek (Eds.), Design of computing systems: Social and ergonomic considerations, p. 221-224 (Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, San Francisco, CA, August 24-29, 1997). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hollnagel, E. (1997). Building Joint Cognitive Systems: A Case Of Horses For Courses? In G. Salvendy, M. J. Smith & R. J. Koubek (Eds.), Design of computing systems: Social and ergonomic considerations, p. 39-42 (Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, San Francisco, CA, August 24-29, 1997). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Bye, A., Hollnagel, E. & Brendeford, T. S. (1997). Task allocation: A functional modelling approach. 5th International Workshop on Advances in Functional Modelling of Complex Technical Systems, Paris, France, July 1-3.

Hollnagel, E. & Bye, A. (1997). Functional modelling as a basis for task allocation. ALLFN '97 - Revisiting the allocation of functions issue, new perspectives. Galway, Ireland, October 1-3.

Hollnagel, E. & Yoshikawa, H. (1998). Cognitive systems engineering in process control (Proceedings of the CSAPC ‘96 Conference). Groningen: The Netherlands: ESSCS.

Kirwan, B. & Hollnagel, E. (1998). The requirements of cognitive simulations for human reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. In: Hollnagel, E. & Yoshikawa, H. (eds.), Cognitive systems engineering in process control (p. 97-115). Groningen, The Netherlands: ESSCS.

Hollnagel, E. (1998). The role and function of procedures in process control. Post IFAC-MMS ‘98 Conference Seminar on Human with Technology, INSS, Mihama, Fukui, Japan, September 21-22.

Hollnagel, E. (1998). Human Reliability for Maintenance Activities, Second International Workshop on Human Reliability Models, Seattle, WA, USA, June 8-10.

Hollnagel, E. (1998). Measurements and models, models and measurements: You can't have one without the other. NATO RTO Meeting Proceedings 4, Collaborative Crew Performance In Complex Operational Systems. Edinburgh, April 20-22, Scotland.

Cacciabue, P. C. & Hollnagel, E. (1998). Human Factors Methods for Safety Assessment in Highly Automated Environments: Task Analysis, Modelling, and Data. PSAM-4 International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management, New York, USA: September 13-18.

Niwa, Y., Hollnagel, E. & Green, M., 1998, Computerised procedure generation, 7th IFAC/IFP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design and Evaluation of Man-Machine Systems, Kyoto, Japan.

Brendeford, T. S., Bye, A., Hollnagel, E. & Hoffmann, M. (1998). FAME - A tool for function allocation in NPP control rooms. Third International FLINS Workshop on Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent technologies for Nuclear Science and Industry, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), The Astrid Park Plaza Hotel, Antwerp, Belgium, September 14-16.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Människan och processen. NUTEK Seminar on ‘Intelligent larmhantering,’ November 17, Sweden.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Humans in safety critical systems. SESAM 1999 Fall Seminar on Safety Critical Systems, October 21-22, Sweden.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Anticipating failure: What should predictions be about? NATO RTO HFM Workshop on ‘The human factor in system reliability.’ (p. KN-1-KN-9), December 1-2, Italy.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). From human-machine interaction to joint cognitive systems. Work Life 2000 workshop on ‘Interaction between human and machine in future technology,’ October 18-20, Belgium.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Function congruence as an automation philosophy. 11. Züricher Symposium Arbeitspsychologie, 11-13 October, Switzerland.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Managing The Quality Of Joint Systems. International Conference On ‘Total Quality Management And Human Factors,’ 5-17- June, Sweden.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Accidents and barriers. In: Hoc, J.-M., Millot, P., Hollnagel, E. & Cacciabue, P. C. (Eds.), Cognitive Science Approaches to process Control, Lez Valenciennes, 28, (p. 175-182), Presses Universitaires de Valenciennes.

Bye, A., Hollnagel, E., Hoffmann, M. & Miberg, A. B. (1999). Analysing automation degree and information exchange in joint cognitive systems: FAME, an analytical approach. 1999 International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 3, 699-704, 12-15 October.

Miscellanea (Reports, etc.) 

Hollnagel E. (1994). Decision making, cognition, and automation. In Paries, J. & Amalberti, R. (Eds.), Briefings – The Human Factors Training Package. Paris, France: Dedale.

Hollnagel, E. (1995). Summary of approaches to dynamic analysis of man-machine interaction. Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory, Technical report for the RAK project.

Hollnagel, E. & Marsden, P. (1996). Further development of the phenotype-genotype classification scheme for the analysis of human erroneous actions. (EUR 16463 EN). CEC Joint Research Centre, Italy: Institute for Systems, Informatics and Safety.

Hollnagel, E., Edland, A. & Svenson, O. (1996). A cognitive task analysis of the SGTR scenario (NKS/RAK-1(96)R3). Roskilde, Denmark: Risø National Laboratory.

Kaarstad, M., Hollnagel, E. & Lee, H.-C. (1998). Human error analysis project (HEAP): Report from main experiment 1. OECD Halden Reactor Project, Halden, Norway.

Hollnagel, E. (1999). Accident analysis and barrier functions. Institutt for energiteknikk, Halden, Norway.

Tasset, D., Charron, S., Miberg, A. B. & Hollnagel, E. (1999). The impact of automation on operator performance. An explorative study. (No. HRP--352/V. 1).